J. F. Gaertner, “The Discourse of Displacement in Greco-Roman Antiquity”, in J. F. Gaertner (ed.), Writing Exile: The Discourse of Displacement in Greco-Roman Antiquity and Beyond (Leiden, 2007), pp. 1–20; G. H. Tucker, Homo Viator: Itineraries of Exile, Displacement and Writing in Renaissance Europe (Geneve, 2003), pp. 37–51, underlines the inner, psychological elements that distinguish exile from travel.
This apparent absence of relative dynamism is found in I. F. Grant and H. Cheape, Periods in Highland History (1987, rptd. London, 1997), pp. 105–36; J. Goodare, State and Society in Early Modern Scotland (Oxford, 1999). Indeed, the two major works on the Highlands and Islands for the period are essentially political narratives of clan conflicts and the Crown’s efforts to pacify these lands: D. Gregory, The History of the Western Highlands and Isles of Scotland, from ad 1493 to ad 1625 (2nd ed., London, 1881); W. C. Mackenzie, History of the Outer Hebrides (Paisley, 1903). On the broader issue of “civilizing” and the State, one can turn to A. MacCoinnich, “‘His Spirit Was Given Only to Warre’: Conflict and Identity in the Scottish Gàidhealtachd c. 1580–c. 1630”, in S. Murdoch and A. Mackillop (eds), Fighting for Identity: Scottish Military Experience, c. 1550–1900 (Leiden, 2002), pp. 133–61; A. Cathcart, “Crisis of Identity? Clan Chattan’s Response to Government Policy in the Scottish Highlands, c. 1580–1609”, in ibid., pp. 163–84; M. Greengrass, “Introduction: Conquest and Coalescence”, in M. Greengrass (ed.), Conquest and Coalescence: The Shaping of the State in Early Modern Europe (London, 1991), pp. 1–24; J. H. Elliot, “A Europe of Composite Monarchies”, Past and Present, vol. CXXXVII (1992), pp. 48–71; B. Dmytryshyn, “The Administrative Apparatus of the Russian Colony in Siberia and Northern Asia, 1581–1700”, in A. Wood (ed.), The History of Siberia: From Russian Conquest to Revolution (London, 1991), pp. 17–36.
The Register of the Privy Council of Scotland [RPC], J. H. Burton et al. (eds), 38 vols (Edinburgh, 1877–1970), 1st ser., vol. I, pp. 136–7; vol. III, pp. 355–6; Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland [TA], ed. T. Dickson et al., 13 vols (Edinburgh, 1877–1978), vol. X, p. 147; Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis: Consisting of Original Papers and Documents Relating to the History of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, ed. W. F. Skene (Iona Club, 1847), pp. 45–6. A fascinating insight can be found with the Senj uskoks: C. W. Bracewell, The Uskoks of Senj: Piracy, Banditry, and Holy War in the Sixteenth-Century Adriatic (Ithaca, 1992).
R. G. Asch, The Thirty Years War: The Holy Roman Empire and Europe, 1618–1648 (Basingstoke, 1997). For Scotland, the collection of essays edited by Steve Murdoch presents a broad and wide-ranging view of the war: S. Murdoch (ed.), Scotland and the Thirty Years’ War, 1618–1648 (Leiden, 2001); A. Grosjean, An Unofficial Alliance: Scotland and Sweden, 1569–1654 (Leiden, 2003), chs 2–3. The British imperial context is summarized in A. I. Macinnes, The British Revolution, 1629–1660 (Basingstoke, 2005), pp. 47–54.
For far northerners in connection with the French army and the Scots Guard in France and its wider context, see Edinburgh University Library [EUL], Laing Collection, La. III. 666, p. 59; National Archives of Scotland [NAS], Edinburgh, Gordon Castle Muniments, GD44/14/4/5; F. Michel, Les Écossais en France, Les Français en Écosse, 2 vols (London, 1862), vol. I, pp. 9, 487–8; vol. II, pp. 50, 233–6, 283–5, 526; M. Glozier, Scottish Soldiers in France in the Reign of the Sun King: Nursery for Men of Honour (Leiden, 2004), chs 1–2; M. Glozier, “Scots in the French and Dutch Armies during the Thirty Years’ War”, in Murdoch, Scotland and the Thirty Years’ War, pp. 117–41; W. Gordon, The History of the Ancient, Noble, and Illustrious Family of Gordon, from Their First Arrival in Scotland, in Malcolm III’s Time, to the Year 1690, 2 vols (Edinburgh, 1726-27), vol. II, pp. 611–3, 624–30; R. Monro, Monro His Expedition with the Worthy Scots Regiment (Called Mac-Keyes Regiment) (London, 1637), vol. I, p. 45.
The military campaign in Norway features in National Library of Scotland [NLS], Edinburgh, P. Henderson, “Notes of the History of Caithness”, Acc. 9798, under the year 1613; R. Gordon, A Genealogical History of the Earldom of Sutherland (Edinburgh, 1813), pp. 288-9; J. Calder, Sketch of the Civil and Traditional History of Caithness, From the Tenth Century (2nd ed., Wick, 1887), pp. 142–8, 301–2, 327; T. Michell, History of the Scottish Expedition to Norway in 1612 (London, 1886); T. A. Fischer, The Scots in Sweden: Being a Contribution towards the History of the Scot Abroad (Edinburgh, 1907), pp. 75–84, 224. Far northerners also served in Holland: Papers Illustrating the History of the Scots Brigade in the Service of the United Netherlands, 1572–1782, vol. I, ed. J. Ferguson (Scottish History Society, 1899), pp. 58–60, 62–3, 66, 69, 72, 74, 214–5, 226, 229 n. 5, 232, 291–2; A. Mackenzie, History of the Mackenzies with Genealogies of the Principal Families of the Name (2nd ed., 1894, Markham, Ont., 1998, rpt. 2002), p. 61.
The expedition to the île de Ré is treated in The Chronicle of Perth; A Register of Remarkable Occurrences, Chiefly Connected with That City, from the Year 1210 to 1668, ed. J. Maidment (Maitland Club, 1831), p. 31; J. Balfour, The Historical Works of Sir James Balfour, ed. J. Haig, 4 vols (Edinburgh, 1824–25), vol. II, pp. 158–9; Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, of the Reign of Charles I, 1625–49 [CSP, Dom.], J. Bruce et al. (eds), 23 vols (London, 1858–97), 1627–28, pp. 285, 453, 515; D. Gregory, “Notices Regarding Scotish Archery, Particularly That of the Highlanders; Together with Some Original Documents Relating to a Levy of Highland Bowmen to Serve in the War against France, in the Year 1627”, Archaeologia Scotica, vol. III (1831), pp. 252–4; NLS, Morton Papers, MS 82, nos. 32, 55; MS 84, no. 5; Gordons of Gordonstoun and Cummings of Altyre Papers, Dep. 175/65, nos. 162, 177; Dep. 175/88/1; Gordon, Earldom, 408; RPC, 2nd ser., vol. II, pp. 37–8, 55–6, 90, 118, 136, 285, 308, 577. In Aug. 1627, King Charles required Colin, 1st Earl of Seaforth, to contribute men to serve in France: The Earl of Stirling’s Register of Royal Letters, Relative to the Affairs of Scotland and Nova Scotia from 1615 to 1635, ed. C. Rogers, 2 vols (Edinburgh, 1885), vol. I, pp. 195–6.
Extracts from the Council Register of the Burgh of Aberdeen, 1625–1642, ed. J. Stuart (Scottish Burgh Records Society, 1871), pp. 8–9; J. Mackay, An Old Scots Brigade: Being the History of Mackay’s Regiment Now Incorporated with the Royal Scots (Edinburgh, 1885), pp. 219–22.
NAS, Justiciary Records, Books of Adjournal, JC2/6, fo. 191v; Earl of Stirling’s Register, ed. Rogers, vol. I, p. 146; RPC, 1st ser., vol. XII, pp. 255, 431, 453; 2nd ser., vol. I, pp. 542–3, 546–7, 565–7, 580–1, 585, 589, 603–5, 608, 611–3, 635–6; vol. II, pp. 7–8, 32–7, 229, 332–3; vol. III, p. 197; vol. VI, pp. 28–9; Fischer, Scots in Sweden, p. 91; G. Henry, The Irish Military Community in Spanish Flanders, 1586–1621 (Blackrock, Co. Dublin, 1992), pp. 22–37; K. Barkey, Bandits and Bureaucrats: The Ottoman Route to State Centralization (Ithaca, 1994, rptd. 1997), ch. 6. In an echo to this policy of levying unsubjected Highlanders, in the second half of the 18th century, the Hanoverian Government would enrol the defeated Jacobite clansmen for service in the British army in the colonies: A. Mackillop, “More Fruitful Than the Soil”: Army, Empire, and the Scottish Highlands, 1715–1815 (East Linton, 2000), ch. 2.
NLS, Culloden Papers, MS 2961, fos 27r-8v; NAS, Hamilton Muniments, GD406/1/9320; Scottish Catholic Archives [SCA], Edinburgh, Colleges Abroad, CA4/9/6; S. Murdoch, “Introduction”, in Murdoch, Scotland and the Thirty Years’ War, pp. 15–8; Henry, Irish Military Community, pp. 48–52. Religious allegiance was a variable factor as opposed to being clearly polarized along denominational divides: Gordon under Arms: A Biographical Muster Roll of Officers Named Gordon in the Navies and Armies of Britain, Europe, America and in the Jacobite Risings, C. O. Skelton and J. M. Bulloch (eds) (New Spalding Club, 1912), nos. 122, 1656, 1754; D. Worthington, Scots in Habsburg Service, 1618–1648 (Leiden, 2004), pp. 88–9, 108–9, 146–50, 177–8, 239, 249, 278, 294–5; J. M. Bulloch, The Gay Adventures of Sir Alexander Gordon Knight of Navidale (Dingwall, 1925), pp. 13, 15, 19, 21–3; Fischer, Scots in Sweden, p. 266; M. R. Gunn, History of the Clan Gunn (Glasgow, 1969), pp. 126–9; S. Murdoch, “More Than Just ‘Mackay’s’ and Mercenaries; Gaelic Influences in Scandinavia, 1580–1707”, Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness [TGSI], vol. LX (1997–98), pp. 167-8.
S. Murdoch, Network North: Scottish Kin, Commercial and Covert Associations in Northern Europe, 1603–1746 (Leiden, 2006), chs 1–3; Grosjean, Unofficial Alliance, chs 3, 5; D. Armitage, “Scottish Diaspora”, in J. Wormald (ed.), Scotland: A History (Oxford, 2005), pp. 280–1; Gunn, Clan Gunn, pp. 126–9; The Munro Tree: A Genealogy and Chronology of the Munros of Foulis and Other Families of the Clan, A Manuscript Compiled in 1734, ed. R. W. Munro (Edinburgh, 1978), L/10, L/17, L/29, L/30, M/5, M/35, M/37, Q/14, Q/39-Q/40, R/4, R/5, R/21, T, U. Calendar of Documents Presented to H. M. General Register House, Edinburgh, by the Rt. Hon. the Baron Reay [Inventory of Reay Papers], ed. C. T. Innes (1929), 8/1; J. A. Fallon, “Scottish Mercenaries in the Service of Denmark and Sweden, 1626-32” (Ph.D. Thesis, University of Glasgow, 1972), pp. 288, 292–3. If Munro is not mistaken, then Captain Innes was indeed John and not Robert as confused by Mackay and Riis: Monro, His Expedition with the Worthy Scots Regiment Called Mac-Keys, ed. W. S. Brockington (Westport, Ct., 1999), p. 116; J. Mackay, An Old Scots Brigade: Being the History of Mackay’s Regiment Now Incorporated with the Royal Scots (Edinburgh, 1885), p. 205; T. Riis, Should Auld Acquaintance Be Forgot…: Scottish-Danish Relations c. 1450–1707, 2 vols (Odense, 1988), vol. II, p. 130. On networks see NLS, Dep. 175/65, nos. 146–7, 162–3; Sutherland Papers, Dep. 313/489, no. 9; NAS, Reay Papers, GD84/2/170; GD406/1/458; The Sutherland Book, ed. W. Fraser, 3 vols (Edinburgh, 1892), vol. II, pp. 152, 161–2; Fallon, “Scottish Mercenaries”, pp. 46–54.
NLS, Dep. 175/65, nos. 143ff, passim; Dep. 313/491, no. 1778; Social Life in Former Days: Second Series, Illustrated by Letters and Family Papers, ed. E. D. Dunbar (Edinburgh, 1866), pp. 28–30, 32–3, 57–64; Sutherland Book, ed. Fraser, II, pp. 38, 152–65. For the positive influence of war correspondence in Scotland, see D. Horsbroch, “Wish You Were Here? Scottish Reactions to ‘Postcards’ Home from the ‘Germane Warres’”, in Murdoch, Scotland and the Thirty Years’ War, pp. 245–69.
NLS, Dep. 175/65, no. 146; Gordon, Earldom, p. 473; Monro, Expedition, I, p. 64; II, pp. 3–4, 13; The Celtic Magazine, vol. X (1885), p. 235.
Monro, Expedition, vol. I, pp. 27, 65, 86; vol. II, pp. 8, 10, 12, 18, 23, 40, 47–9, 53, 59; Fallon, “Scottish Mercenaries”, pp. 339–42; Fischer, Scots in Sweden, pp. 90, 100–2.
NAS, John MacGregor Collection, GD50/224/6; Munro of Foulis Writs, GD93/201; Cuninghame of Caprington Muniments, GD149/265/2, fo. 90r; NLS, Brydges MS, Adv. MS 6.1.17, fos. 92r-4r; Historical Manuscripts Commission [HMC], Eleventh Report, Appendix, Part VI: The Manuscripts of the Duke of Hamilton, ed. W. Fraser (London, 1887), p. 74; T. A. Fischer, The Scots in Germany: Being a Contribution towards the History of the Scot Abroad (Edinburgh, 1902), pp. 77–8, 90–1, 283–5; D. Kirby, Northern Europe in the Early Modern Period: The Baltic World, 1492–1772 (London, 1992), pp. 138–9, 146–7. It is argued that in 18th century Scotland, net migration, which included temporary emigrants like soldiers and merchant mariners, had a much lesser impact on the population than that of fertility and mortality: R. E. Tyson, “Demographic Change”, in T. M. Devine and J. R. Young (eds), Eighteenth Century Scotland: New Perspectives (East Linton, 1999), pp. 197-8.
One of these songs ran “Oh, woe unto these cruell wars That ever they began! For they have reft my native isle Of many a pretty man. First they took my brothers twain Then wiled my love frae me: Oh, woe unto these cruell wars In low Germanie!” (Fischer, Scots in Germany, pp. 73–4.)
I. Grimble, “The Royal Payment of Mackay’s Regiment”, Scottish Gaelic Studies [SGS], vol. IX (1961), pp. 28–30.
Documents Relating to the Province of Moray, ed. E. D. Dunbar (Edinburgh, 1895), pp. 113–4; Mackay, Old Scots Brigade, pp. 204–8; Clan Munro Association, Clan Munro Magazine, vol. V (1955), pp. 25–8; Monro, Expedition, II, pp. 13, 20–1, 31–2, 54–5, 65–6, 70–2; RPC, 2nd ser., vol. V, pp. 333–6, 349, 352–6; SCA, CA4/9/6. It is worth pointing out that Munro initiated this project prior to the battle of Nördlingen. The colonel nonetheless lost most of his regiment. Munro certainly returned to Sweden and fought on until 1639 while the Swedish armies regrouped and strengthened: Grosjean, Unofficial Alliance, pp. 97–103, 172; W. S. Brockington, “Robert Monro: Professional Soldier, Military Historian and Scotsman”, in Murdoch, Scotland and the Thirty Years’ War, pp. 219–220; “Scotland, Scandinavia and Northern Europe, 1580–1707” [SSNE], S. Murdoch and A. Grosjean (eds), available online at <http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ssne/index.php>, accessed 19–20 February 2005, ID no. 94.
Gordon under Arms, Skelton and Bulloch (eds), nos. 122, 832, 1656, 1734; Munro Tree, ed. Munro, M/44, R/6, R/21; Mackay, Old Scots Brigade, p. 252.
Fischer, Scots in Germany, p. 316; W. Macfarlane (ed.), Genealogical Collections concerning Families in Scotland, ed. J. T. Clark, 2 vols (Scottish Historical Society [SHS], 1900), vol. I, p. 101. The ubiquitous William Gunn developed an ever wider network moving first into a limited local circle of influence to enjoy finally British and continental connections. Gunn, the son of an accessory to arson, ended his career as a major-general and baron of the Holy Roman Empire: Fischer, Scots in Germany, p. 112; Fischer, Scots in Sweden, pp. 118, 266; NLS, Gordons of Gordonstoun and Cummings of Altyre Papers, Acc. 10824/3, bundle no. 94, Dec. 1623; Dep. 175/65, nos. 107, 120, 146, 163, 300; Dep. 313/489, no. 28a; Dep. 313/491, no. 1770; NAS, GD406/1/857; HMC, Eleventh Report, App., pp. 101, 104; Monro, Expedition, II, pp. 23–4; Fallon, “Scottish Mercenaries”, pp. 63, 117, 120, 288, 290, 292–3, 344, 377, 382, 384; Worthington, Scots in Habsburg Service, pp. 239, 249, 278; D. G. Thompson, “In the Footsteps of Sir William Gunn”, Gunn Herald (Mar. 1999), available online at <http://www.geocities.com/cgherald/Archive/SirWilliamGunn.html>, accessed 27 August 2009.
H. Tayler, History of the Family of Urquhart (Aberdeen, 1946), pp. 7, 21, 61, 92; Fischer, Scots in Sweden, pp. 117–8, 237–8, 260, 263–4; Munro Tree, ed. Munro, L/17, Q/15. This civilianization is researched in Grosjean, Unofficial Alliance, ch. 5; and see Murdoch, Network North, pp. 359, 361–4.
C. Witzenrath, Cossacks and the Russian Empire, 1598–1725: Manipulation, Rebellion and Expansion into Siberia (London, 2007), pp. 24–6, 36–8, 61, 76, 127, 140–1, 148, 152.
Munro Tree, ed. Munro, M/24, Q/15; The Scots Overseas: Emigrants and Adventurers from Argyll and the Northern Highlands (Part One), ed. D. Dobson (St Andrews, 1993), pp. 22, 27; D. [S.] Thomson, An Introduction to Gaelic Poetry (2nd ed., Edinburgh, 1990), pp. 60–1.
CSP, Dom., 1628-29, p. 555; A. Mackenzie, History of the Munros of Fowlis (Inverness, 1898), p. 360; NAS, GD84/2/173, pp. 178, 192; GD84/2/246, p. 33b; GD406/1/9656–7; Inventory of Reay Papers, ed. Innes, 3/1B, 2B, 3B, 4B; 8/2, 6, 12; 9/1–3, 7, 12; 12/1B–8B; 28/1–10, 1B–2B, 3B/1–4; 125/4–7; Gordon, Earldom, p. 509; Grimble, “Royal Payment”, pp. 23–38; I. Grimble, Chief of Mackay (London, 1965), ch. 6; Letters of Two Centuries Chiefly Connected with Inverness and the Highlands, from 1616 to 1815, ed. C. Fraser-Mackintosh (Inverness, 1890), pp. 24–5, 34–6.
Gaelic Folksongs from the Isle of Barra, J. L. Campbell et al. (eds), (London, 1950), pp. 28–9. Sir Donald Mackay was made Lord Baron Reay in June 1628 in token of his military actions: NAS, GD84/2/169, 171; Mackay of Bighouse Muniments, GD87/2/2; Registrum Magni Sigilli Regum Scotorum; The Register of the Great Seal of Scotland, ad 1306–1668 [RMS], J. M. Thomson et al. (eds), 11 vols (Edinburgh, 1882–1914), vol. VIII, no. 1211.
G. Astoul, Les Chemins du Savoir en Quercy et Rouergue à l’Époque Moderne : Alphabétisation et Apprentissages Culturels (Toulouse, 1999), pp. 93–5; D. Allan, “‘What’s in a Name?’: Pedigree and Propaganda in Seventeenth-Century Scotland”, in E. J. Cowan and R. J. Finlay (eds), Scottish History: The Power of the Past (Edinburgh, 2002), pp. 161–2. This line of reasoning actually combined the two trends in the mainstream English humanist thought of the time whose ideal was to shape a belligerent aristocracy into gentlemanly scholar-soldiers rather than farmers or merchants: D. Shuger, “Irishmen, Aristocrats, and Other White Barbarians”, Renaissance Quarterly, vol. l (1997), p. 520.
D. Withrington, “Education in the 17th Century Highlands”, in L. Maclean (ed.), The Seventeenth Century in the Highlands (Inverness, 1986), pp. 60–9; M. M. Meikle, A British Frontier?: Lairds and Gentlemen in the Eastern Borders, 1540–1603 (East Linton, 2004), ch. 5; S. K. Cohn, “Highlands and Lowlands in Late Medieval Tuscany”, in D. Broun and M. MacGregor (eds), Mìorun Mòr nan Gall, “The Great Ill-Will of the Lowlander”?: Lowland Perceptions of the Highlands, Medieval and Modern (Glasgow, 2009), pp. 111–2, 122; J. D. Selwyn, A Paradise Inhabited by Devils: The Jesuits’ Civilizing Mission in Early Modern Naples (Aldershot, 2004), introduction and ch. 1. The denigration of people constitutive of the kingdom applied in the Swedish case against the Lapps: P. Burke, Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe (1978, 3rd ed., Farnham, 2009), p. 152. MacGregor claims this irreligious strain to be apparently a post-1560 construct as this did not feature in the late-medieval literati canon, except for William Dunbar: M. MacGregor, “Gaelic Barbarity and Scottish Identity in the Later Middle Ages”, in Broun and MacGregor, Lowland Perceptions, p. 36.
A.-M. Granet-Abisset, “Entre Autodidaxie et Scolarisation : Les Alpes Briançonnaises”, Histoire de l’Éducation, vol. LXXl (1996), p. 129. Gifts of chaplainries depicted a broad picture of local education: NAS, Register of Privy Seal, PS1/61, fo. 10v; PS1/63, fo. 98v; Church of Scotland Records, Miscellaneous Ecclesiastical Records, Register of Presentations to Benefices, CH4/1/1, fos. 101v, 104v, 107v; CH4/1/2, fos. 21v, 41r-v, 43v, 154r; Origines Parochiales Scotiae: The Antiquities Ecclesiastical and Territorial of the Parishes of Scotland [OPS], C. Innes and J. B. Brichan (eds), 2 vols (Bannatyne Club, 1851–55), vol. II, pp. 2, 422–5, 460, 586; Mackenzie, Munros, p. 302; Old Ross-shire and Scotland As Seen in the Tain and Balnagown Documents, ed. W. Macgill, 2 vols (Inverness, 1909–11), vol. I, no. 138; M. Dilworth, “Benedictine Monks of Ratisbon and Wurzburg in the 17th and 18th Centuries: émigrés from the Highlands of Scotland”, TGSI, vol. XLIV (1964–66), pp. 96–7. The initial education of the nobility is discussed in K. M. Brown, Noble Society in Scotland: Wealth, Family and Culture, from Reformation to Revolution (Edinburgh, 2004), pp. 181–2.
R. A. Houston, Literacy in Early Modern Europe: Culture and Education, 1500–1800 (2nd ed., Harlow, 2002), pp. 99–106, and pp. 106–23 for the motives and limitations in the search for the command of literacy; I. G. Tóth, Literacy and Written Culture in Early Modern Central Europe (Budapest, 2000), pp. 27–9; P. Bourdieu, “The Forms of Capital”, in J. G. Richardson (ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education (New York, 1986), pp. 243–6, 253; G. S. Becker, Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education (1964, 3rd ed., Chicago, 1993), pp. 15–26, 255–6.
This social geopolitical dimension of fosterage, namely the creation of alliances between and within kindreds, is discussed in A. Cathcart, Kinship and Clientage: Highland Clanship, 1451–1609 (Leiden, 2006), pp. 80–5; F. Fitzsimons, “Fosterage and Gossiprid in Late Medieval Ireland: Some New Evidence”, in P. J. Duffy et al. (eds), Gaelic Ireland, c. 1250–c. 1650: Land, Lordship and Settlement (Dublin, 2001), pp. 138–49. The utilitarian capitalization of fosterage in relation to kinship as exercised by Scots abroad is most aptly analysed in Murdoch, Network North, ch. 1. On comparative adoptive kinship within a socio-political angle, one should consult P. Parkes, “Celtic Fosterage: Adoptive Kinship and Clientage in Northwest Europe”, Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. XLVIII (2006), pp. 359–95.
Parkes, “Celtic Fosterage”, pp. 361–6; A. O. Curle, “Notice of Four Contracts or Bonds of Fosterage; with Notes on the Former Prevalence of the Custom of Fosterage in the Scottish Highlands”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland [PSAS], vol. XXX (1895–96), pp. 12–4, 17, 19–21.
Murdoch, Network North, ch. 1; Cathcart, Kinship, pp. 80–5; Fitzsimons, “Fosterage and Gossiprid”. For Plato, the art of reading and writing carried but the appearance of wisdom and only instruction led to true wisdom: Plato, Phaedrus, trans. H. N. Fowler (London, 1913), pp. 563, 565.
Granet-Abisset, “Entre Autodidaxie et Scolarisation”, pp. 127–9 and 136–7, who contended that Alpine villages resorted to a mixture of home and school education, but also noted the possibility of a placement of the youth with a curate kin to learn Latin.
See the early Irish and Welsh practices and likewise that of the Ossetes in the North Caucasus in Parkes, “Celtic Fosterage”, pp. 361–2, 362–3 n. 8, 374–5.
NAS, Commissariot of Edinburgh, Register of Testaments, CC8/8/31, p. 781; also CC8/8/29, p. 285; CC8/8/37, pp. 87, 329; NLS, Dep. 313/1597, year 1616, fo. 8v.
RPC, 1st ser., vol. VI, pp. 411–2; NAS, CC8/8/45, p. 183; Exchequer Records, Taxation Papers, E68/14/6, 5 May 1627; see also CC8/8/29, pp. 291–2. John Mackenzie of Gairloch had entrusted a daughter of his to Mr Robert Munro, most likely the treasurer of Ross, by 1607. Gairloch replicated the move with at least one of his sons cared for by Robert Leslie in the Chanonry. The location once again on the far north-eastern coast is significant: NAS, CC8/8/45, p. 669.
I. F. Grant, The Macleods: The History of a Clan (1959), p. 127; The Book of Dunvegan, ed. R. C. MacLeod, vol. I (Third Spalding Club, 1938), pp. 120–1. Some Mackenzie instances of fostering can be found in Celtic Magazine, vol. II (1877), p. 110. On the strengthening of kinship bonds through fosterage, see M. Rackwitz, Travels to Terra Incognita: The Scottish Highlands and Hebrides in Early Modern Travellers’ Accounts, c. 1600 to 1800 (Münster, 2007), pp. 242–7.
Meikle, British Frontier, pp. 165, 167.
NAS, CC8/8/45, p. 183; and also CC8/8/20, p. 407; CC8/8/24, p. 179; CC8/8/25, p. 273; CC8/8/35, pp. 61, 782; NLS, Acc. 10824/3, charge crop 1621 and sett 1622. Other instances of boarding in towns of the area’s eastern seaboard and the Lowlands suggest at least the possibility of school education and perhaps apprenticeship for boys, including for Wester Ross families. Even a minor landlord like Angus Macculloch in/of Craighouse (Tarbat parish) was able to place his son Walter with Alexander Morrison, indweller in Leith, by 1599: NAS, CC8/8/35, p. 781; CC8/8/45, p. 669. Island families opted for Glasgow for instruction facilities and/or positions of apprenticeship: NAS, Glasgow Commissary Court Records, Register of Deeds, 1585–88, 1604–1700, CC9/14/4, fo. 164r.
Thomas, the son of Sir John Sinclair of Greenland, was left in 1622 to “ye governement of ye laird of murkill [James Sinclair, Thomas’ uncle] To be brocht up and trainit vp at scooles” (NAS, Caithness Commissary Court, Register of Deeds, CC4/8/1, fo. 4r). A generation before, in 1582, James Sinclair himself had been left with his cousin, Francis, Earl of Bothwell, to be governed, entertained, and sustained “at ye schuillis”: SCA, Blairs Charters, BC14/4; also of interest is NAS, CC8/8/39, p. 321; Robertson of Kindeace Papers, GD146/10, testaments 1653–1793, Gilbert Robertson’s testament.
In a number of instances, marital patterns are difficult to trace.
Meikle, British Frontier, pp. 168–72.
D. E. R. Watt, “Education in the Highlands in the Middle Ages”, in L. Maclean (ed.), The Middle Ages in the Highlands (Inverness, 1981), pp. 80–9. On this Latinate culture in the far north, one should consult Report of the Committee of the Highland Society of Scotland, Appointed to Inquire into the Nature and Authenticity of the Poems of Ossian, ed. H. Mackenzie (Edinburgh, 1805), p. 50; J. Bannerman, “Literacy in the Highlands”, in I. B. Cowan and D. Shaw (eds), The Renaissance and Reformation in Scotland (Edinburgh, 1983), pp. 214–35; R. Sharpe, “Roderick MacLean’s Life of St Columba in Latin Verse (1549)”, Innes Review [IR], vol. XLII (1991), pp. 111–32; Highland Papers, ed. J. R. N. Macphail, 4 vols (SHS, 1914–34), vol. I, pp. 8, 10–11; A. Cameron, Reliquiae Celticae, A. MacBain and J. Kennedy (eds), 2 vols (Inverness, 1892–94), vol. II, pp. 170–1; J. B. Craven, Descriptive Catalogue of the Bibliotheck of Kirkwall (1683), with a Notice of the Founder, William Baikie, M. A. of Holland (Kirkwall, 1897), pp. 20, 32; M. Anderson-Smith, “The Bibliotheck of Kirkwall”, Northern Scotland, vol. XV (1995), pp. 128–30; Aberdeen University Library [AUL], Special Collections, volume shelf-marked “BK Rud [1–6]”; Book of Dunvegan, ed. MacLeod, vol. I, p. 184; NAS, GD146/10, inventory of old papers 1782.
Estimates of attendance are only tentative due to the partial survival of records, the proportion of attendants who never matriculated, the European-wide peregrinatio academica, and a high drop-out rate (Houston, Literacy, pp. 91-3). This number is the result of the perusal of a variety of sources too numerous to be listed, but primarily the Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae, ed. H. Scott, 8 vols (new ed., Edinburgh, 1915–50), vols VII–VIII, and the printed and manuscript registers of alumni and matriculations of the Universities of Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow, and St Andrews. There were about 64 students for whom their paternity was known and 48 of those were of noble or landholding stock. All the major families and clans of the far north had sons in higher education: Gordon, Gray, Macdonald, Mackenzie, Macleod, Macrae, Munro, Ross, and Sinclair, the last two perhaps underrepresented were it not for the fact that the name being found in these registers was a common one in Scotland. This is a major point as these registers mostly recorded first names and surnames with no other details, hence the difficulty in identifying Davidsons, Dunbars, Grays, Rosses, Sinclairs, Urquharts, and others. The medieval figures for the then dioceses of Caithness, Ross, Moray, and Argyll are taken from Watt, “Education in the Highlands”, p. 87.
Fasti, ed. Scott, vol. VII, pp. 1, 33; Officers and Graduates of the University and King’s College, Aberdeen, MVD–MDCCCLX, ed. P. J. Anderson (New Spalding Club, 1893), p. 185; A. Macrae, History of the Clan Macrae: With Genealogies (Dingwall, 1899), pp. 142–3; also Selected Justiciary Cases, 1624–1650, S. A. Gillon and J. I. Smith (eds), 3 vols (Stair Soc., 1953–74), vol. III, pp. 564–71. The ecclesiastics who sent their sons to the university at times combined a landholding position, hence the high percentage when the two figures for the landlords and clergy are added together.
For example, Archibald Davidson, son of Adam Davidson, burgess of Inverness and indweller in Thurso, went to the University of St Andrews: Fasti, ed. Scott, vol. VII, p. 106; vol. VIII, p. 674; Accounts of the Collectors of Thirds of Benefices, 1561–1572, ed. G. Donaldson (SHS, 1949), p. 208; Early Records of the University of St Andrews: The Graduation Roll, 1413–1579, and the Matriculation Roll, 1473–1579, ed. J. M. Anderson (SHS, 1926), pp. 297, 300, 304, 307; Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments and Constructions of Scotland [RCAHMS], Third Report and Inventory of Monuments and Constructions in the County of Caithness (London, 1911), pp. 113–4. Mr Martin Macpherson, a graduate of Glasgow University, was the son of John Bain Macpherson, “warrior”: Fasti, ed. Scott, vol. VII, pp. 194–5; vol. VIII, p. 690; Scottish Genealogy Society, The Scottish Genealogist, vol. I, nos. 2–3 (Apr.–Jul. 1954), p. 27; Munimenta Alme Universitatis Glasguensis: Records of the University of Glasgow from Its Foundation till 1727, ed. C. Innes, 4 vols (Maitland Club, 1854), vol. III, pp. 19, 82.
NAS, CC4/2/1, bundle 1633, legacy of the late William Strachan, 15 Jun. 1633. Albeit of a later date (1658), a good insight into indentured service can be found in NAS, Cromartie Muniments, GD305/1/147/2. On this point, one should consult Becker, Human Capital, p. 20. The search across the printed and manuscript registers of students enrolled at Scottish and English universities is not facilitated by the anonymity of the records which tended to list only the Christian names and surnames of the students. Undoubtedly, these would have incorporated sons of burgesses. However, the gift of chaplainries to fund schooling for children with a view for the recipients subsequently to enter the ministry was granted to a number of burgesses but these were not residents in the northern shires: NAS, CH4/1/1-4; PS1/53-67. Lastly, the fact that burgesses did not tend to use the title “Mr” suggests that they did not graduate but might have nonetheless attended university.
Calendar of State Papers Relating to Scotland and Mary, Queen of Scots, 1547–1603 [CSP, Sco.], J. Bain et al. (eds), 13 vols (Edinburgh, 1898–1969), vol. XII, p. 205 n.; Highland Papers, ed. Macphail, vol. II, p. 267.
Grimble, Chief of Mackay, pp. 59–65. On some bellicose and lawless traits of character of Donald Mackay, one can consult Grimble, Chief of Mackay, p. 59; A. Mackay, The Book of Mackay (Edinburgh, 1906), p. 126; NAS, Particular Register of Hornings and Inhibitions, Inverness, 1st ser., DI62/4, fos. 134r-5v.
Cobbett’s Complete Collection of State Trials and Proceedings for High Treason and Other Crimes and Misdemeanors from the Earliest Period to the Present Time, T. B. Howell and T. J. Howell (eds), 34 vols (London, 1809–28), vol. III, col. 486. The trial itself can be consulted in ibid., Howell and Howell (eds), vol. III, cols 483–520.
A. Mackay, “An Account of the Aberach-Mackay Banner, Now Exhibited in the National Museum”, PSAS, vol. XXXVIII (1903–4), pp. 527–9; A. Mackay, “The Aberach-Mackay Banner”, Celtic Monthly, vol. VI (1898), pp. 171–5; J. Sinclair (ed.), The Statistical Account of Scotland, 1791–1799 [OSA], D. J. Withrington and I. R. Grant (eds), 20 vols (Wakefield, 1973–83), vol. XVIII, p. 477. Much was probably lost in terms of banners and ensigns among the Scottish clans. A mere quote from a mid- to late-16th century piece of bardic praise-poetry of the Campbells revealed Clan Ranald as ealta sluaigh na meirgeach maoth, “those fighting bands of the ensigns of silk”, and the Macleods as Fine Leóid na mbratach mbodhbha, “Tribe of Leod of the belligerent banners”: Duanaire na Sracaire Songbook of the Pillagers: Anthology of Scotland’s Gaelic Verse to 1600, W. McLeod and M. Bateman (eds) (Edinburgh, 2007), pp. 146–7, also 412–3; J. Macdonald, “An Elegy for Ruaidhrí Mór”, SGS, vol. VIII (1958), pp. 40-1; A. Matheson, “Poems from a Manuscript of Cathal Mac Muireadhaigh”, Éigse, vol. XI (1964–66), p. 1; Gàir nan Clàrsach: The Harps’ Cry, C. Ó Baoill and M. Bateman (eds) (Edinburgh, 1994), pp. 86-7.
That is beside the other means responsible for the penetration of cultural influences in any given area either through books or trade for instance.
C. Witzenrath, “Literacy and Orality in the Eurasian Frontier: Imperial Culture and Space in Seventeenth-Century Siberia and Russia”, Slavonic and East European Review [SEER], vol. LXXXVII (2009), pp. 63–77; D. Allan, “‘Ane Ornament to Yow and Your Famelie’: Sir Robert Gordon of Gordonstoun and the Genealogical History of the Earldom of Sutherland”, Scottish Historical Review [SHR], vol. LXXX (2001), pp. 24–44, especially 40–44; Allan, “Pedigree and Propaganda”, pp. 151, 159; NLS, Dep. 175/65, nos. 58, 84, 103. Beside networking, corruption lubricated legal businesses for prosperous far northerners.
F. T. MacLeod, “Notes on the Relics Preserved in Dunvegan Castle, Skye, and the Heraldry of the Family of Macleod of Macleod”, PSAS, vol. XLVII (1912–13), pp. 118–9, 123–4 dated the sideboard to 1603 and of an Edinburgh origin; Book of Dunvegan, ed. MacLeod, vol. I, p. xlvi; Grant, MacLeods, pp. 219, 243; A. Campbell, “A Closer Look at West Highland Heraldry”, Double Tressure, vol. XIX (1997), pp. 46–7, 49–50, 59. The official guide to the castle comments that the sideboard bears the date 1603 and was brought by Sir Rory after his sojourn in London in 1613: John MacLeod, Official Guide, Dunvegan Castle, Isle of Skye, Scotland (2003, Dunvegan Castle, current [2009?] ed.), p. 19.
NAS, GD84/2/246, frontispiece; Lyon Office, Edinburgh, Kings and Nobilities Arms II, MS21, pl. 109. Sir James Balfour’s and Pont’s Manuscripts recorded the alternative heraldic charge of two hands holding two drawn swords rather than daggers: NLS, Scottish Heraldry, Blazons of Scottish Arms by Sir James Balfour of Denmilne, 1630, Adv. MS 15.1.11, fo. 34v; Lyon Office, Pont’s Manuscript, MS1, p. 36 n. 46. On his 1623 targe, the hand does not grasp the sword: The Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow, GLAHM C.72, available online at <http://www.huntsearch.gla.ac.uk/>, accessed 30 April 2010. Aonghas MacCoinnich deserves our gratitude for this reference. It is significant that prior to Reay’s time, the Mackay hand was displayed appaumé rather than associated with these bladed weapons (Mackay, “Account of the Aberach-Mackay Banner”, pp. 527–32). Colonel George Matheson had his heraldic arms registered with the Lord Lyon on 5 October 1639 with an armed hand holding a naked sword for his crest, underlining his military exploits. Matheson traditions and genealogies have that he was George of Shinness in Sutherland: NLS, Adv. MS 15.1.11, fo. 35r; A. Mackenzie and A. MacBain, History of the Mathesons with Genealogies of the Various Families (2nd ed., Stirling, 1900), pp. 140–1; EUL, Sir Roderick Murchison Collection,MS 2262/2/2/2.
Witzenrath, Cossacks, especially ch. 3; Witzenrath, “Literacy”; H. H. Nolte, “Internal Peripheries: From Andalucia to Tatarstan”, Review, vol. XVIII (1995), pp. 269–70.